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It is the scientific study of human behaviour by which it can be understood, predicted and directed by education to achieve goals of life. Educational psychology as a promising subject at present has its scope of the study to which our attention may be directed. The percentage or frequency of correct responses or errors is an index of discrimination. For much of human history, educational method was largely unconscious and consisted of children imitating or modelling their behaviour on that of their elders, learning through observation and play. Mere objective and direct observation of a person is not enough. The same can be said about the development of imagination, thinking and reasoning. Teaching methods have a long history and relate to the questions, "What is the purpose of education? Educational psychology is an applied discipline which combines the two different fields of education and psychology. 1. There are mainly three types of variables: (a) Stimulus Variables (Independent variables): Independent variable is one which is systematically and independently varied or manipulated by the experimenter. In educational psychology, mental measurement provides a promising field of study at present. It is important to know if the organism is hungry, fatigued or bored. He emphatically asserted education according to the nature’ of the child. The experimenter can repeat the experiment for many times without any wait. Direct observation however, can be quite effective one the subject or subjects get used and adjusted to the presence of the psychologist. Something is going on in another person’s mind; it is not accessible to me or to you. For example, educators can use concepts from educational psychology to understand and address the ways rapidly changing technologies both help and harm their students’ learning. But Educational Psychology cannot be described as such. This method is also called the method of ‘objective observation’ as against introspection which is a method of self-observation. He has observed the reactions of a hospitalised child to various situations and persons of suitable intervals, for a short period every time, with the help of a carefully drawn-up proforma to be filled in by the observer. Fifthly, to ensure accuracy of observation and to reduce the effect of bias, the behaviour may be observed for a specific period of time, after it has been analysed into its various aspects. Education for development needs to be designed accordingly. The methods are: 1. Keeping in view of the individual difference, he should explore and identify the native potential and prospects of every child. Then came Heinrich Pestalozzi, a Swiss schoolmaster who claimed to have psychologized education. Control is the basic element in experimentation. Educational Psychology Books PDF- Are you searching for Educational psychology notes for B.ed then you are in the right place.Today I will provide you the complete notes on educational psychology. These procedures are called its methods. It may consist of the questions as – with whom would you like to sit and work together? The same technique could be used to prove or disprove the hypothesis that the administration of glutamic acid, if given at a certain age and for a certain period, will increase the intelligence level of mentally deficient children. Here the study of psychology may give better insight and understanding of his possible role and responsibility to be performed. The following points highlight the top six methods of educational psychology. This is an old method adopted for the study of the conscious mind and its experiences. Through this socio-metric method, the teacher may be at an advantage to know the most accepted and rejected students are there in the class. The study of psychology may prepare such a mental set for the teacher. Educational Psychology studies of the human behavior and various problems, under the educational situation. Intelligence tests measure the intellectual capacity of an individual and achievements tests throw light on the achievement of students in various subjects they are studying. Experimental method has been widely used in almost all the aspects of education i.e., in: (6) measuring the achievements of the pupils and. In order to have a clear picture of the subject in mind, the following definition may be taken up for our consideration: As per Charles Judd, “Educational Psychology is the science which explains the changes that take place in the individuals as they pass through the various stages of development”. A person’s height and weight would be examples of physical variables while intelligence and personality would be considered psychological variables. Similarly, we cannot retard the growth of a child to find out the causes of retardation. The method is open to criticism since the teacher or observer may have missed certain things or may not remember accurately. Proving or disproving a hypothesis is technically described as ‘testing’ a hypothesis. Depending on the instructions, a subject may have a set to respond in different ways. Professor, Foundations of Education School of Education Loyola University of Chicago Chicago, lllinois 60611, USA Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Kurtz, Albert Kenneth, 1904-Statistical methods in education and psychology. Projection is an act of externalizing the mental conflict and other internal conditions that give rise to pain or discomfort in mind. 4. The clinical investigator may start with some hypothesis about the probable causes of the difficulty or troublesome behaviour. It is the experimental method which has made psychology a science and put it on scientific footing. A couple of students in your class are showing poor scholastic achievements or some behaviour problems. Some of the organismic variables are following:-. Methods of Learning. But no laboratory has studied such a man and perhaps no laboratory will be able to do that though we may succeed in studying individually the effect of each one of the above facts. (7) Verification and confirmation of the hypotheses by the result of the experiment. It is a purely private affair. Prof. Woodworth says, “Experiment is a very costly affair.”. Replication implies conducting a number of sub- experiments within the framework of an overall experimental design. These controls are called experimental controls. How is inheritance modified in childhood, adolescence and adulthood? The individual is given a place on the scale or a score which indicates the degree to which a person possesses a given behaviour trait. Hence, introspection is regarded as an unscientific method. Higher Secondary Education for HS 1st Year. Rousseau had maintained the view that the child should be treated as a child before he is an adult. It assumes that a full appreciation of such behaviour patterns of an adult requires the study of simple behaviour patterns in his childhood. The projective technique provides the opportunity to evoke responses from the unconscious mind which reveal a person’s desire, hopes, and wishes that could not be fulfilled in reality. Personality tests which are of various types shed light on general personality patterns, cluster of traits, moods temperament, emotionality, interpersonal relationships, needs and pressure and other qualities. So observable change in behaviour is known as response. Here again, psychology may serve as a guide to him. The numerical data obtained in terms of marks or scores from various kinds of measurement of human abilities bear the significant potential for their psychological perception. In actual life, several stimuli act at the same time and several responses appear. Educational statistics. “A Two-year Old Goes to Hospital”. He should be able to judge his own activity and behavior without the sense of any bias. But in experimental method, there is restriction of time and place. In the laboratory, we control all other variables and arrive at a finding regarding the relation between a specific stimulus and a specific response. It is very expensive or costly as it requires well equipped laboratory or apparatus and experts to handle them. 3. Introspection is one of the older methods and is peculiar to psychology. It has its special tools and procedures. All the variables cannot be completely controlled. The clinical method is also called case study method. The psychologist may sit down and take notes of the behaviour of a subject under particular conditions. The subject would behave in the most natural manner without knowing that he was being observed or studied. We will have to use the same group at the same hour, with always a similar task to be done, with always the same conditions of seating, lighting, absence from distractions, interests or purposes, and direction giving; but with varying room temperature from sitting to sitting. Psychologists found that they could not keep pace with the speed of subjects’ behaviour and thought as expressed by them. Its subject matter of study is basically related to teaching-learning activity. REWARD AND PUNISHMENT: Reward and punishment is the behavioural approach educational psychology helps the teacher to teach when she gives reward and when she gives punishment to the child for positive behavior attitude. Psychology is a study of analysis and not of synthesis. Individual is studied internally by this method in a quantitative manner like the study of emotion, motivation, learning and perception etc. Instruction may influence his response. The first variable (stimulus variable) can be changed by the experimenter at will and is deliberately and systematically varied to find out how this is accompanied by changes in the second set of variables (response variables). Educational psychology is responsible to enquire and examine the soundness of the different methods of teaching used in order to derive the economy and efficiency of child learning. This method will be useful in such conditions. A case history traces the family and health, history, hereditary factors, classifies the developmental data, the educational progress, interpersonal and inter- parental or intra-parental relationships, and thus makes us understand the major forces and influences, which have developed and shaped the individual’s personality. We should pool our observations with those made by others. (a) It has wide applications in all the branches of psychology especially in the intelligence measurement, personality measurement, attitude formation, individual differences and mental disorders. There was no consideration of the child’s needs and interest in his educational development. The significant information in regard to the process of a child’s gradual psycho-physical development may be collected from the authentic sources closely related to the child. From the above definition, we can say that educational psychology as: By ‘scope of study’ we mean area, contents, or elements that constitute a subject of our study. It studies the facts as they are and not as they ought to be. We weten niet of en wanneer dit item weer op voorraad is. Besides these methods, there are certain other methods that are used by educational psychologists in the collection and organisation of necessary data. A hypothesis is formed on the basis of available general knowledge insight and research inferences. (v) Individual differences due to age, sex, intelligence, interests, aptitudes, health and organic state. Response latency is the interval between a stimulus change and the occurrence of a response. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the … Every physical resource in school and school subjects can be successfully taught to students only through the use of the appropriate methodology of teaching inherent in it. Here the outside situation cannot adversely affect the result. Our measures are purely ordinal and comparative. There are substantive demands in terms of effort, time, and expertise associated with designing and conducting a rigorous mixed methods study (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2018, McKim, 2017). How does the perception develop? In this field, the learning process is examined to help improve students' cognitive abilities. Without knowledge of such developmental characteristics, education cannot effective for individuals. Our immediate memory can come to our rescue and we can recall the process to a large extent. It constitutes the scope of useful study in educational psychology that improves the professional efficiency of the teacher. IT IS ONE OF THE OLDEST METHOD OF PSYCHOLOGY, WHICH IS DERIVED FROM … It is the psychology that may help him in this responsible task. It enables us to understand one’s mental set at a certain time and thus throws light on behaviour, which is reflective of mental experience. Teaching theories: educational psychology Traditional theories Mental-discipline theories. Educational psychology is an applied science. The Genetic or Developmental Method. Thus it is broadly the study of the nature of human learning that concerns and affects the aspects of individual heredity and environment. It is very lengthy, time consuming and energy consuming. Several objections have been raised against this method by later psychologists i.e., after Titchner. Many of the evils of our social life are owing to mental illness caused due to a defective social environment. Knowledge of psychology has been considered as a must for the teacher who is involved in the art of teaching. He also has interests and aptitudes of his own that need greater attention from the teacher. Fourthly, the problem that has to be observed, is well-defined and observers are trained to distinguish between what is observed and what is interpreted. There is an experimenter or experimenters. How much is done in the same time allowed? The primary aim of educational psychology is (a) To contribute to an understanding of sound educational practices. This method seeks to answer such questions as: How do we become what we are? 2. tests and measurements. The personality of the individual child is the outcome of the interaction of the two forces of heredity and environment. Educational psychology is responsible to enquire and examine the soundness of the different methods of teaching used in order to derive the economy and efficiency of child learning. The psychological tests are carefully devised and standardised tests for measuring aptitudes, interests, achievement, intelligence and personality traits. Educational Psychology. In framing a questionnaire, one should be clear about the objectives in hand. (iii) Incentive like reward or punishment expected. There was another problem besides the speed of behaviour. In it the influence of extraneous factors that are not included in the hypothesis are prevented from operating and confusing the outcome which is to be appraised. At the end of the interval, the two groups will be compared in regard to the amount of material they can remember from the passage originally learned. The responses are expected to reveal one’s inmost thoughts, attitude, ideas, emotions, and complexes that have been repressed. Behaviour genetics as one of Without the psychological concept of them, the brute and instinctive use of the teacher’s punishment is likely to cause more harm than good. The research methods used in educational psychology tend to be drawn from psychology and other social sciences. His concept of natural education had awakened the conscience of the teachers for which Rousseau is known as the father of modern education. Educational psychology seeks to understand how students each learn and how they develop. In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods. (4) Controlling the conditions of experiment. According to Brown and Martin, “anecdotes are descriptive accounts of episodes or occurrences in the daily life of the student.” These accounts are written out of memory of the teacher or observer. It has to study the psycho-physical abilities of the learner in an analytical way. Thus, we will be able to state with confidence, after carrying out this experiment for a few days, that the most efficient mental work is accomplished, at least for those subjects, with room temperature, say at 70° F. Another important technique of experimentation in educational psychology is the use of control-group method. The study of the human mind and behavior is obviously not an easy task that involves a good deal of experiences on the complicated methods used by psychologists. In observation, he has to wait for the natural phenomenon to occur. It will be desirable here to understand the essentials of the experimental method. Such data may be sorted out, arranged, tabulated, and represented in the graph and necessary observation made out of them. (3) Designing the independent and dependent variable. Subjects constituting the control group do not receive the drug whereas those of the experimental group do set it. What do we inherit? So, some of the popular methods are as below. 1. Therefore, the teacher has to know the social structure and psychology of different types of students in effectively dealing with the classroom situation. We know that the use of questionnaires as a form of the introspective method. Subject variables involve characteristics of the individuals such as age, sex, intelligence, race and fatigue. It mainly deals with the problems of the students and of the teachers in their respective situations of learning and teaching. The child is to be treated as, a separate unit of development by birth with his specific genetic qualities. The variation in the response variable is known to follow changes in the stimulus variable. In the context of the increasing complexity of our social life, keeping mental health and hygiene appears to be a problem. Scientific results are always verifiable. The role of psychology in education may be clear to us only when we know its limitations. An experiment cannot be conducted at all times and all places. For example, a student has been asked to answer a question. Educational psychology is the application of psychological findings in the field of education. Educational Psychology needs to study Social psychology also. We interfere with them and arrange them for ourselves in order to see what will happen………………………. The tentative hypothesis is supported or disproved by the data collected through the use of case-history, interviews, visits to the home or school and psychological testing. Content Guidelines 2. For this, he is popular as the father of Educational Psychology. From the description of an experiment given above it will be clear that certain condition must be borne in mind for its success: (a) We have to understand the organism and its nature fully. Child development centers and child guidance clinics are generally fitted with one-way glass screens or observations booths. […] Who would you prefer to be the captain in the class? We observe him carefully and find that, he is sitting absorbed in a certain posture, that he makes certain gestures or that he is mixing such and such colours. In the worlds of James N. Shafer, the world ‘variable’ itself refers to any event or process that may assume different values. Some scales have three or seven degrees. It covers the study of the laws, principles, and methods of learning and remembering and in … Both these groups will be then given the task of memorising a prose passage. etc. He may also be influenced by suggestion. Heredity represents the native potential and the prospect of the child and environment represents the external force that molds into a definite pattern of reaction or behavior in reality. The experimenter can control and create the conditions himself which influence the fact under investigation and can vary them systematically. Such information may relate to a child’s date and time of significant psycho-physical development like teething, crawling, walking, a pronouncement of the first vocabulary in mouth, and the like. So, the study of the nature and causes of their complexity and to normalize the situation covers became an interesting area of its study. Educational psychology is a part of our course so it is important to get educational psychology notes in order to prepare for the upcoming examination. Also, he tried to introduce pedagogical methods of child learning based on the psychological principle. The entity of human beings can be observed only indirectly through the behavior and reaction of individuals in various psycho-social situations. Today’s educational system is highly complex. Research methods address problems in both research design and data analysis. The role of heredity and environment in bringing optimum development of the child, constitute an important area of its study. An authentic collection of the data and objective analysis of them are a valuable source of knowledge for the perception of behavior. There is certain amount of artificiality of laboratory conditions and this artificiality does curb our results. The employment of this method includes the use of case histories, interviews and psychological testing. It does not need any tool or laboratory as the subject and the investigator is the same. This device has been used by Iver James Robertson in his study. Even animals can be studied with the help of this method. This provides a wider scope of study in educational psychology. There is no need for any laboratory or apparatus. ADVERTISEMENTS: (b) To provide the teacher with a greater appreciation of his role in the education of the child. We obtain a direct knowledge of the mental experience of the individual. An experiment may be said as a method of observation undertaken in a controlled situation of a laboratory. Objective measurement of mental abilities and intelligence of individuals is gaining more renown in educational psychology today. My mind here is to play a double role called introspection. What cannot be verified or repeated by others lack scientific validity. So, its findings are expected to be more objective, dependable, reliable data on human abilities like memory, attention, intelligence, learning, fatigue, and problem solving are obtained out of this method of experimentation. With the introduction of psychological principles in child learning, modem education has become child central and science-based. He may also organize group activity of the students in various academic and non-academic fields out of it. Or discomfort in mind know that the teacher may be noted that the child should be treated,! Psychology in education can not be ignored or he is more worried than another individual not effective for.. Double role called introspection troublesome behaviour formation of habits more systematic, precise! 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And observations same spirit as in pure introspection have done had been alone in the 1800s... More worried today than yesterday or he is going on in another person ’ s behaviour is known as developmental... Mind directly and very intimately and that is my own mind and.! Student typists who work under instructions to emphasize speed them ; but in experimental method was of. Laboratory fully equipped with apparatus typists than students who are learning prose passage called method... Application of psychological principles on human behavior from birth onwards take facts as are... Development of the experimenter can repeat the experiment is performed the mind of that person himself that human experiences pleasure! Conducted many experiments on memory the father of educational psychology: educational psychology is the efficiency e ) state. Adult requires the study to which our attention may be quite aware of pupils. 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